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Improving your reading

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master_Thao
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Bài gửiTiêu đề: Improving your reading 2/6/2010, 11:24

Here are 3 reding, after each one has some questions for you to check your reading skill. Now let start this reading! (Good luck Very Happy )

Questions 1-6: Reading this passage and answer the following questions.
The principal difference between urban growth in Europe and in the American colonies was the slow evolution of cities in the former and their rapid growth in the latter. In Europe they grew over a period of centuries from town economies to their present urban structure. In North America, they started as wilderness communities and developed to mature urbanism’s in little more than a century.
In the early colonial day in North America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic Coastline, mostly in what are now New America, small cities sprang up along the Atlantic United States and in the lower Saint Lawrence valley in Canada. This was natural because these areas were nearest England and France, particularly England, from which most capital goods (assets such as equipment) and many consumer goods were imported Merchandising establishments were, accordingly, advantageously located in port cities from which goods could be readily distributed to interior settlements. Here, too, were the favored locations for processing raw materials prior to export. Boston, Philadelphia, New York, Montreal, and other cities flourished, and, as the colonies grew, these citiesincreased in importance.
This was less true in the colonial South, where life centered around large farms, known as plantations, rather than around towns, as was the case in the areas further north along the Atlantic coastline. The local isolation and the economic self-sufficiency of the plantations were antagonistic to the development of the towns. The plantations maintained their independence because they were located on navigable streams and each had a wharf accessible to the small shipping of that day. In face, one of the strongest factors in the selection of plantation land was the desire to have it front on a water highway.
When the United States became an independent nation in 1776, it did not have a single city as large as 50,000 inhabitants, but by 1820 it had a city of more than 10,000 people, and by 1880 it had recorded a city of over one million. It was not until after 1823, after the mechanization of the spinning had weaving industries, that cities started drawing young people away from farms. Such migration was particularly rapid following the Civil War (1861-1865).
1. What does the passage mainly discuss?
a.Factors that slowed the growth of cities in Europe.
b.he evolution of cities in North America.
c. Trade between North American and European cities.
d.The effects of the United Sates’ independence on urban growth in New England.

2. The passage compares early European and North American cities on the basis of which of the following?
a.Their economic success.
b.The type of merchandise they exported.
c. Their ability to distribute goods to interior settlements.
d.The pace of their development.


3. According to the passage, early colonial cities were established along the Atlantic coastline of North America due to _________.
a.proximity to parts of Europe
b. an abundance of natural resources
c. financial support from colonial governments
d.a favorable climate


4. The passage indicates that during colonial times, the Atlantic coastline cities prepared which of the following for shipment to Europe?
a.Capital goods
b. Manufacturing equipment
c.Consumer goods
d.Raw materials


5. According to the passage, all of the following aspects of the plantation system influenced the growth of southern cities EXCEPT the:
a.access of plantation owners to shipping
b. location of the plantations
c. relationships between plantation residents and city residents
d.economic self-sufficiency of the plantation


6. It can be inferred from the passage that, in comparison with northern, cities, most southern cities were __________.
a. documented
b.imagined
c. discovered
d.planned

Questions 7-11: Reading this passage and answer the following questions.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, the production of food and feed crops in the United States rose at an extraordinarily rapid rate.Com production increased by four and a half times, hay by five times, oats and wheat by seven times. The most crucial factor behind this phenomenal upsurge in productivity was the widespread adoption of labor-saving machinery by northern farmers. By 1850 horse-drawn reaping machines that cut grain were being introduced into the major grain-growing regions of the country.
Horse-powered threshing machines to separate the seeds from the plants were already in general use. However, it was the onset of the Civil War in 1861 that provided the great stimulus for the mechanization of northern agriculture. With much of the labor force inducted into the army and with grain prices on the rise, northern farmers rushed to avail themselves of the new labor-saving equipment. In 1860 there were approximately 80,000 reapers in the country; five years later there were 350,000. After the close of the war in 1865, machinery became ever more important in northern agriculture, and improved equipment was continually introduced. By 1880 a self-binding reaper had been perfected that not only cut the grain, but also gathered the stalks and bound them with twine. Threshing machines were also being improved and enlarged, and after 1870 they were increasingly powered by steam engines rather than by horses. Since steam-powered threshing machines were costly items-running from $ 1,000 to $4,000 -they were usually owned by custom thresher owners who then worked their way from farm to farm during the harvest season. “Combines” were also coming into use on the great wheat ranches in California and the Pacific Northwest. These ponderous machine - sometimes pulled by as many as 40 horses – reaped the grain, threshed it, and bagged it, all in one simultaneous operation.
The adoption of labor-saving machinery had a profound effect upon the sale of agricultural operations in the northern states-allowing farmers to increase vastly their crop acreage. By the end of century, a farmer employing the new machinery could plant and harvest two and half times as much corn as a farmer had using hand methods 50 years before.
7. What aspect of farming in the United States in the nineteenth century does the Passage mainly discuss?
a.Why southern farms were not as successful as Successful as northern farms
b. Farming practices before the Civil War
c.How labor-saving machinery increased crop Production
d.The increase in the number of people farming


8. According to the passage, why was the Civil War a stimulus for mechanization?
a.It was hoped that harvesting more grain would lower the price of grain.
b.Technology developed for the war could also the used by farmers.
c.The army needed more grain in order to feed the soldiers.
d. Machines were needed to replace a disappearing labor force.


9. The passage supports which of the following statements about machinery after the Civil War?
a. Many farmers preferred not to use the new machinery.
b.Returning laborers replaced the use of machinery.
c. The use of farm machinery continued to increase.
d. Poor-quality machinery slowed the pace of crop production.


10. Combines and self-binding reapers were similar because each _________.
a.required relatively little power to operate
b.could perform more than one function
c.was utilized mainly in California
d. required two people to operate


11. It can be inferred from the passage that most farmers did not own threshing machines because _________.
a.farmers did not know how to use the new machines
b.thresher owner had chance to buy the machines before farmers did
c. farmers had no space to keep the machines
d.the machines were too expensive for every farmer to own


Questions 12-16: Reading this passage and answer the following questions.
The Native American peoples of the north Pacific Coast created a highly complex maritime culture as they invented modes of production unique to their special environment. In addition to their sophisticated technical culture, they also attained one of the most complex social organizations of any nonagricultural people in the world.
In a division of labor similar to that of the hunting peoples in the interior and among foraging peoples throughout the world, the men did most of the fishing, and the women processed the catch. Women also specialized in the gathering of the abundant shellfish that lived closer to shore. They collected oysters, crabs, sea urchins, mussels, abalone, and clams, which they could gather while remaining close to their children. The maritime life harvested by the women not only provided food, but also supplied more of the raw materials for making tools than did fish gathered by the men. Of particular importance for the native tool than did the fish gathered by the men. Of particular made from the larger mussel shells, and a variety of cutting edges that could be made from other marine shells. The women used their tools to process all of the fish and marine mammals brought in by the men. They cleaned the fish, and dried vast quantities of them for the winter. They sun-dried fish when practical, but in the rainy climate of the coastal area they also used smokehouses to preserve tons of fish and other seafood annually. Each product had its own peculiar characteristics that demanded a particular way of cutting or drying the meat, and each task required its own cutting blades and other utensils.
After drying the fish, the women pounded some of them into fish meal, which was an easily transported food used in soups, stews, or other dishes to provide protein and thickening in the absence of fresh fish or while on long trips. The women also made a cheese-like substance from a mixture of fish and roe by aging it in storehouses or by burying it in wooden boxes or pits lined with rocks and tree leaves.
12. Which aspect of the lives of the Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast does the passage mainly discuss?
a.The contributions of women to the food supply
b.How diet was restricted by the environment
c.Methods of food preservation
d.Difficulties in establishing successful farms


13. It can be inferred from paragraph 1 that the social organization of many agricultural peoples is __________.
a.more complex than that of hunters and foragers
b. less efficient than that of hunters and foragers
c.more widespread than that of hunters and foragers
d. better documented than that of hunters and foragers


14. All of the following are true of the north Pacific coast women EXCEPT that they ___________.
were more likely to catch shellfish than other kinds of fish
contributed more materials for tool making than the men did
sometimes searched for food far inland from the coast
prepared and preserved the fish


15. The Native Americans of the north Pacific Coast used smokehouses in order to _________.
prevent fish and shellfish from spoiling
store utensils used in food preparation
have a place to store fish and shellfish
prepare elaborate meals


16.
All of following are true of the cheese-like substance mentioned in paragraph 4 EXCEPT that it was _________.

made from fish
useful on long journeys
not actually cheese
made in a short period of time


Questions 17- 26: Reading this passage and answer the following questions.
The tern “art deco” has come to encompass three distinct but related design trends of the 1920’s and 1930’s. The first was what is frequently referred to as “zigzag moderne” –the exotically ornamental style of such skyscrapers as the Chrysler Building in New York City and related structures such as the Paramount Theater in Oakland, California The word “zigzag” alludes to the geometric and stylized ornamentation of zigzags, angular patterns, abstracted plant and animal motifs, sunbursts, astrological imagery, formalized fountains, and related themes that were applied in mosaic relief and mural form to the exterior and interior of the buildings. Many of these buildings were shaped in the ziggurat form, a design resembling an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower that recedes in progressively smaller stages to the summit, creating a staircase-like effect.
The second manifestation of art deco was the 1930’s streamlined moderne” style—a Futuristic-looking aerodynamic style of rounded corners and horizontal bands known as “speed stripes.” In architecture, these elements were frequently accompanied by round windows, extensive use of glass block, and flat rooftops.
The third style, referred to as cither “international stripped classicism,” or simply “ classical moderne,” also came to the forefront during the Depression, a period of severe economic difficult in the 1930’s. This was amore conservative style, blending a simplified modernistic style with a more austere form of geometric and stylized relief sculpture and other ornament, including interior murals. May buildings in this style were erected nationwide through government programs during the Depression.
Although art deco in its many forms was largely perceived as thoroughly modern, it was strongly influenced by the decorative arts movements that immediately preceded it. For example, like “art nouveau” (1890-1910), art deco also used plant motifs, but regularized the forms into abstracted repetitive patterns rather than presenting them as flowing, asymmetrical foliage, Like the Viennese craftspeople of the Wiener Werkstatte, art deco designers worked with exotic materials, geometricized shapes, and colorfully ornate patterns. Furthermore, like the artisans of the Arts and Crafts Movement in England and the United States, art deep practitioners considered it their mission to transform the domestic environment through well-designed furniture and household accessories.

17. What aspect of art deco does the passage mainly discuss?
Ways in which government programs encouraged the development of art deco
Architectural manifestations of art deco during the 1920’s and 1930’s
The influence of art deco on the design of furniture and household accessories
Reasons for the popularity of art deco in New York and California

18. The word “encompass” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to _________.
separate
include
replace
enhance


19. The phrase “The first” in paragraph 1 refers to _________.
design trends
the term “art deco”
the 1920’s and 1930’s
skyscrapers


20. In paragraph 1, the author mentions “an ancient Mesopotamian temple tower” in order to ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬_________.
explain the differences between ancient and modern architectural steles
emphasize the extent of architectural advances
describe the exterior shape of certain “art deco” buildings
argue for a return to more traditional architectural design


21. The streamlined modern style is characterized by all of the following EXCEPT ________.
animal motifs
flat roofs
round windows
“speed stripes”


22. The phrase “came to the forefront” in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to _________.
a.went through a process
b.grew in complexity
c.changed its approach
d. became important


23. According to the passage, which of the following statements most accurately describes the relationship between art deco and art nouveau?
a. They were art forms that competed with each other for government support during the Depression era.
b. Art nouveau preceded art deco and influenced it.
c.They were essentially the same art form.
d.Art deco became important in the United States while art nouveau became popular in England.

24. According to the passage, a building having an especially ornate appearance would most probably have been designed in the style of ________.
a.classical moderne
b. streamlined moderne
c.zigzag moderne
d.the Arts and Crafts Movement


25. According to the passage, which of the following design trends is known by more than one name?
a. Zigzag moderne
b. International stripped classicism
c.Streamlined moderne
d.Arts and Crafts Movement


26. The passage is primarily developed as __________.
a.the historical chronology of a movement
b.an analysis of various trends within an artistic movement
c. a description of specific buildings that became famous for their unusual beauty
d. an argument of the advantages of one artistic form over another

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